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Softcover version of original hardcover edition Sicher bezahlen. Folgen Sie uns. Das Passwort muss mind. Darin sollte mind. Recht Steuern Wirtschaft. Erschienen: This volume features an extra focus on distillation applications.

This volume features an extra focus on distillation equipment and processes. Intensification of biobased processes 4 editions published in in English and held by 77 WorldCat member libraries worldwide The first book dedicated entirely to this area, Intensification of Biobased Processes provides a comprehensive overview of modern process intensification technologies used in bioprocessing. Reactive and membrane-assisted separations by Philip Lutze Book 4 editions published between and in English and held by 44 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Process intensification aims for increasing efficiency and sustainability of bio- chemical production processes.

This book presents strategies for improving fluid separation such as reactive distillation, reactive absorption and membrane assisted separations. The authors discuss computer simulation, model development, methodological approaches for synthesis and the design and scale-up of the final industrial processes.

A systematic investigation of transport phenomena in organic solvent nanofiltration by Stefanie Hoffmann 1 edition published in in English and held by 16 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Prozessentwicklung zur Integration von enzymatisch-katalysierten Reaktionen in die Reaktivrektifikation by Rene Heils 1 edition published in in German and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide In reactive distillation processes, the integration of reaction and separation into one unit operation not only reduces equipment and operational costs but also enables enhanced conversion and selectivity.

Due to increased thermal stresses, the application of enzymes in this process is hardly explored. In this thesis, methods for integration and exchange of immobilized enzymes were developed to demonstrate the feasibility of enzymes for the production of single enantiomers in reactive distillation processes.

Distillation: fundamentals and principles 1 edition published in in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Special issue on intelligent column internals for reactive separations Book 1 edition published in in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. In addition, IRS operations are often characterized by intensive heat-integration. In these cases, the transport phase has the additional function to supply or withdraw energy to or from the reaction phase. In some publications this task is described as being very useful, for example when the heat of reaction is used to support the reboiler of a reactive distillation column.

Example 1 sections 2.

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In some cases it should rather be avoided by decoupling reaction and separation from each other by distributing functionalities. The structuring of IRS-processes is possible on the micro-scale and on the macro-scale. Micro-scale means distributing reaction functionality cata- lyst and separation functionality e. The process synthesis strategy de- scribed in this chapter is limited to the macro-scale distribution of func- tionalities. Combining reaction and separation in one single unit operation always leads to dependencies on the operational parameters as well as to two-way interactions and influences.

These dependencies are mathematically de- scribed by the phase rule Perry et al. The number of independent reactions NR is equal to or lower than the number of reactions in the system.

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To determine the number of independ- ent reactions see Bearns et al. Bearns et al. Distribution of the functionalities reaction, separation and reactive sepa- ration on a process influences the parameters NC, NP and NR in eq. A classification of the different possibilities to distribute functionalities is shown in Figure 2. On the left, a completely integrated apparatus is shown only performing the functionality reactive separation. This type of integration will be called a homogeneous distribution.

It represents the highest level of integration where the number of degrees of freedom is the lowest. Typical examples of this type of processes are fully catalytic reac- tive distillation columns, reactive gas adsorptions, or simulated moving bed reactors in reactive chromatography as well as all single-phase reac- tors and all two-phase separation units.

The second type of distribution of functionalities is called heterogeneous distribution Figure 2. Here at least two different functionalities are arranged within one single apparatus, for example a reactive distillation column with reactive and non-reactive stages. As the separation func- tionality in such a structured apparatus performs a task that is different from the task of the reactive separation functionality, this additional degree of freedom may help to achieve the design objectives see example 1, MTBE process.

Reaction functionality. Separation functionality. Integrated functionality. In the case where an integrated reaction-separation process offers poten- tial cost savings compared to a conventional process, but where the operat- ing parameters for reaction and separation do not match see the section on operation windows , a third type of distribution of functionalities called partially integrated distribution can be useful Figure 2.

The overall process, however, is still an integrated one. Although some of the operation conditions such as temperature and pressure are decoupled, both the external reactor and the corresponding distillation stages are still interacting closely with each other. In Figure 2. The number of boundary conditions for integrated processes increases with the level of integration. This can be illustrated by the operation win- dow method developed by Schembecker and Tlatlik Schembecker and Tlatlik This method helps to evaluate whether coupling of reaction and separation is possible in a single apparatus.

The influence of these aspects on the process design can be represented by multi-dimensional operation windows. The dimension of the operation windows is given by the number of operating parameters that have a limit- ing influence on the process, such as pressure, temperature, pH value, resi- dence time, concentration level of a specific component corrosive, pre- vention of explosive atmosphere etc..

Residence time Residence time Residence time. On the left side of Figure 2. By adding the separation step Figure 2. Each of them causes additional limitations to the de- signer, and only where all three operation windows overlap, an integrated process is feasible.

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It is not very likely that the optimal operating conditions for reaction and separation as well as for the cost of the equipment lie in this overlap of the three operation windows. Hence choosing an operation point always means finding a compromise among all parameters. Of course it is possible that the specific operation windows do not over- lap at all. Here the op- eration windows overlap for reaction and separation and also for separation and appara- tus distillation column.

How- ever, since the distillation col- umn cannot provide enough residence time to achieve suffi- cient chemical conversion per stage no overlapping between reaction and distillation col- umn can be found. Alternatively, a continuously stirred tank reactor CSTR can provide the residence time required.

In this case combining a distillation column with one or more external reactors might be a useful option to accomplish an IRS process. The resulting structure will be par- tially integrated according to Figure 2. Combined structures like this have already been mentioned in several publications.

The intentions here are not always to increase residence time but also to change other opera- tion parameters like pressure and temperature or to simplify catalyst ex- change Baur and Krishna , Citro and Lee , Jakobsson et al. To find not only feasible but also, economically seen, promising process alternatives in the enormous number of possible arrangements of unit op- erations is one of the most challenging tasks for process designers.

Many decisions are made in the early phases of process development.


The major problem is that these decisions have, on the one hand, a great impact on plant economics and, on the other hand, have to be made based upon lim- ited information Clark and Lorenzoni This is true for conventional processes, and even more so for integrated processes. Therefore, the proc- ess synthesis strategy proposed in the sequel will provide guidance to de- velop integrated reactive separation processes based on information that is easily accessible in the available literature or by experimental investiga- tions.

The strategy will first be explained in general and then be applied to four examples that have been investigated at Dortmund University. The plant or equipment design is strongly dependent on the specific goals for the process under consideration. For the same reaction, the equipment design may differ strongly if different goals are pursued, for example whether a product should be produced and purified to be sold or a large amount of a toxic component must be converted see chapter 9.

Typical goals for the introduction of integrated reaction and separation processes are the increase of conversion or selectivity, the achievement of a better space-time yield than in conventional processes, the optimization of heat integration, and the simplification of downstream processing. For process development it is essential to have reliable and complete ther- modynamic data for the component system under consideration. Further- more, it is desirable to know as much as possible about the interactions of the species in the system with potential auxiliary components solvents, adsorbents etc.

In reality, not all information required is easily assessible. For common chemicals the most important data as, for example, vapor- liquid -liquid phase behavior have already been investigated experimen- tally and are published in the accessible literature or available in data bases like DETHERM or Dortmunder Datenbank DMD.

This ap- proach, however, only provides semi-quantitative information on the ther- modynamic behavior and is less useful for some types of molecules for example large molecules with numerous functional groups as it was de- veloped primarily for short-chain hydrocarbons. Special simulation tools offer the opportunity to generate information for process synthesis, for example topologies of distillation and reactive distillation areas, determination of reactive and kinetic azeotropes, shapes of the reaction space Bessling et al.

There- fore the optimal conditions in the reaction phase have to be determined first. Integrated processes offer potentials for saving investment or operational costs of chemical process plants; but on the other hand, due to their high level of integration, they are often not easy to operate and may also cause new difficulties that do not occur in conventional sequential arrangements of reaction and separation.

Therefore it is quite important to check which advantages can be expected from a combination of reaction and separation in one piece of equipment. The decision as to which kind of transport phase is most suitable or eco- nomical cannot be made by a general heuristic approach as there are too many factors that influence the decision. Schembecker provides a useful guideline for the choice of the transport phase Schembecker a : 1. Separate phases that already exist in the system using for example a decanter, sedimentation.

For phase creation, prefer the input or the removal of energy as, for example, pressure and temperature change condensation, crystalli- zation over the use of auxiliary components for example extracting agent , to avoid additional separation steps and recycle streams. Prefer single-stage processes instead of multi-stage processes flash, membrane separations. When additional components are necessary for phase separation extraction, azeotropic distillation, adsorption , prefer components which are already present in the process over external components.

Separation and recycle of these components is usually easier. Solubility Table 2. A cer- tain difference in volatility of both components, however, can be found.