Nevertheless, even seasoned plasma physicists should find insight in the lucid development of the fundamentals as they apply to diagnostics and also appreciate the work as a valuable reference. Although most of the examples of diagnostics in action are taken from fusion research, the work's focus on principles will make it useful to all plasma physicists, those interested in space and astrophysical plasmas as well as laboratory plasmas, and theoreticians as well as experimenters themselves.
Additional Product Features Dewey Edition. It gives diagnostic physicists access to physical descriptions of their own techniques as well as to the physics of complementary observations. It provides graduate students with an effective guide for applying theoretical concepts to their experiments. In summary [Principles of Plasma Diagnostics] is a pleasure to read, and an invaluable addition to any astrphysicist's library. Show More Show Less. Add to Cart.
Principles of plasma diagnostics
Pre-owned Pre-owned. No ratings or reviews yet. Be the first to write a review. Best Selling in Nonfiction See all. Permanent Record by Edward Snowden , Hardcover 1. Open Borders Inc. Save on Nonfiction Trending price is based on prices over last 90 days. The net effect is a characteristic broadening of spectral lines, known as Doppler broadening , from which the ion temperature can be determined.
The splitting of some emission lines due to the Stark effect can be used to determine the local electric field. Even if the macroscopic electric field is zero, any single ion will experience an electric field due to the neighboring charged particles in the plasma. This results in a broadening of some lines that can be used to determine the density of the plasma.
The brightness of an atomic spectral line emitted by atoms and ions in a gas or plasma can depend on the gas's temperature and pressure. Due to the completeness and accuracy of modern collisional radiative models the temperature and density of plasmas can be measured by taking ratios of the emission intensities of various atomic spectral lines. The presence of a magnetic field splits the atomic energy levels due to the Zeeman effect.
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This leads to broadening or splitting of spectral lines. Analyzing these lines can, therefore, yield the magnetic field strength in the plasma. Active spectroscopic methods stimulate the plasma atoms in some way and observe the result emission of radiation, absorption of the stimulating light or others. By shining through the plasma a laser with a wavelength, tuned to a certain transition of one of the species present in the plasma, the absorption profile of that transition could be obtained.
This profile provides information not only for the plasma parameters, that could be obtained from the emission profile, but also for the line-integrated number density of the absorbing species. A beam of neutral atoms is fired into a plasma. Some atoms are excited by collisions within the plasma and emit radiation. This can be used to probe density fluctuations in a turbulent plasma.
In very hot plasmas as in magnetic fusion experiments , light elements are fully ionized and don't emit line radiation. When a beam of neutral atoms is fired into the plasma, electrons from beam atoms are transferred to hot plasma ions, which form hydrogenic ions which promptly emit line radiation. This radiation is analyzed for ion density, temperature, and velocity. If the plasma is not fully ionized but contains ions that fluoresce, laser-induced fluorescence can provide very detailed information on temperature, density, and flows.
If an atom is moving in a magnetic field, the Lorentz force will act in opposite directions on the nucleus and the electrons, just as an electric field does. In the frame of reference of the atom, there is an electric field, even if there is none in the laboratory frame. Consequently, certain lines will be split by the Stark effect.
With an appropriate choice of beam species and velocity and of geometry, this effect can be used to determine the magnetic field in the plasma. The two-photon laser-induced fluorescence TALIF is a modification of the laser-induced fluorescence technique.
In this approach the upper level is excited by absorbing two photons and registering the resulting emission from the excited state. The advantage of this approach is that the registered light from the fluorescence is with a different wavelength from the exciting laser beam, which leads to improved signal to noise ratio. The optical diagnostics above measure line radiation from atoms. Alternatively, the effects of free charges on electromagnetic radiation can be used as a diagnostic.
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In magnetized plasmas, electrons will gyrate around magnetic field lines and emit cyclotron radiation. The frequency of the emission is given by the cyclotron resonance condition.
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