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Witzel suggests the possibility of written Vedic texts towards the end of 1st millennium BCE.

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Some scholars such as Jack Goody state that "the Vedas are not the product of an oral society", basing this view by comparing inconsistencies in the transmitted versions of literature from various oral societies such as the Greek and other cultures noting that the Vedic literature is too consistent and vast to have been composed and transmitted orally across generations, without being written down. However, adds Goody, the Vedic texts involved both a written and oral tradition, calling it a "parallel products of a literate society". Due to the ephemeral nature of the manuscript material, surviving manuscripts surpass an age of a few hundred years; the Sampurnanand Sanskrit University has a Rigveda manuscript from the 14th century.

The Vedas, Vedic rituals and its ancillary sciences called the Vedangas , were part of the curriculum at ancient universities such as at Ta.

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It follows his fourteen-year exile to the forest from the kingdom, by his father King Dasharatha , on request of his second wife Kaikeyi , his travels across forests in India with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana , the kidnapping of his wife by Ravana , the great king of Lanka, resulting in a war with him, Rama's eventual return to Ayodhya to be crowned king.

There have been many attempts to unravel the epic's historical growth and compositional layers; the Ramayana is one of the largest ancient epics in world literature. It consists of nearly 24, verses, divided into about sargas. In Hindu tradition, it is considered to be the adi-kavya, it depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal husband and the ideal king.

Ramayana was an important influence on Sanskrit poetry and Hindu life and culture. Like Mahabharata, Ramayana is not just a story: it presents the teachings of ancient Hindu sages in narrative allegory , interspersing philosophical and ethical elements; the characters Rama, Lakshmana, Hanuman and Ravana are all fundamental to the cultural consciousness of India, Sri Lanka , south-east Asian countries such as Thailand , Cambodia and Indonesia.

There are many versions of Ramayana in Indian languages, besides Buddhist and Jain adaptations. According to Hindu tradition, Ramayana takes place during a period of time known as Treta Yuga. In its extant form, Valmiki's Ramayana is an epic poem of some 24, verses. The text survives in several thousand partial and complete manuscripts, the oldest of, a palm-leaf manuscript found in Nepal and dated to the 11th century CE.

A Times of India report dated 18 December informs about the discovery of a 6th-century manuscript of the Ramayana at the Asiatic Society library, Kolkata ; the Ramayana text has several regional renderings and sub recensions. Textual scholar Robert P. Goldman differentiates two major regional revisions: the southern. Scholar Romesh Chunder Dutt writes that "the Ramayana, like the Mahabharata, is a growth of centuries, but the main story is more distinctly the creation of one mind.

Most Hindus still believe they are integral parts of the book, in spite of some style differences and narrative contradictions between these two volumes and the rest of the book. Ramayana predates Mahabharata. However, the general cultural background of Ramayana is one of the post-urbanization periods of the eastern part of north India and Nepal, while Mahabharata reflects the Kuru areas west of this, from the Rigvedic to the late Vedic period.

By tradition, the text belongs to second of the four eons of Hindu chronology. Rama is said to have been born in the Treta Yuga to king Dasharatha in the Ikshvaku dynasty; the names of the characters are all known in late Vedic literature. However, nowhere in the surviving Vedic poetry is there a story similar to the Ramayana of Valmiki. According to the modern academic view, who, according to Bala Kanda , was incarnated as Rama , first came into prominence with the epics themselves and further, during the puranic period of the 1st millennium CE. In the epic Mahabharata , there is a version of Ramayana known as Ramopakhyana; this version is depicted as a narration to Yudhishthira.

Books two to six form the oldest portion of the epic, while the first and last books are additions, as some style differences and narrative contradictions between these two volumes and the rest of the book. The author or authors of Bala Kanda and Ayodhya Kanda appear to be familiar with the eastern Gangetic basin region of northern India and with the Kosala and Magadha regions during the period of the sixteen Mahajanapadas , based on the fact that the geographical and geopolitical data accords with what is known about the region.

Dasharatha is father of Rama, he has three queens, Kausalya , Ka. Tanka Tanka is a genre of classical Japanese poetry and one of the major genres of Japanese literature. Japanese poet and critic Masaoka Shiki revived the term tanka in the early twentieth century for his statement that waka should be renewed and modernized. Haiku is a term of his invention, used for his revision of standalone hokku , with the same idea. Tanka consist of five units with the following pattern of on: ; the is called the kami-no-ku, the is called the shimo-no-ku.

During the Kojiki and Nihonshoki periods the tanka retained a well defined form, but the history of the mutations of the tanka itself forms an important chapter in haiku history, until the modern revival of tanka began with several poets who began to publish literary magazines, gathering their friends and disciples as contributors. In the New York Times published a representative work: Masaoka Shiki's poems and writing have had a more lasting influence; the magazine Hototogisu , which he founded, still publishes.

Using their magazine they spread their influence throughout the country.

Their modernization aside, in the court the old traditions still prevailed; the court continues to hold many utakai both and privately. The utakai that the Emperor holds on the first of the year is called Utakai Hajime and it is an important event for waka poets.

After World War II , waka began to be considered out-of-date, but since the late s it has revived under the example of contemporary poets, such as Tawara Machi. With her bestselling collection Salad Anniversary, the poet has been credited with revitalizing the tanka for modern audiences. Today there are many circles of tanka poets.

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The Japanese imperial family continue to write tanka for the New Year. In ancient times, it was a custom between two writers to exchange waka instead of letters in prose.

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In particular, it was common between lovers. In the Heian period the lovers would exchange waka in the morning when lovers met at the woman's home; the exchanged waka were called Kinuginu, because it was thought the man wanted to stay with his lover and when the sun rose he had no time to put on his clothes on which he had lain instead of a mattress. Murasaki Shikibu uses waka in her The Tale of Genji as waka her characters made in the story; some of these are her own. Shortly and reciting waka became a part of aristocratic culture, they recited a part of appropriate waka to imply something on an occasion.

Much like with tea, there were a number of rituals and events surrounding the composition and judgment of waka. There were two types of waka party that produced occasional poetry: Uta-awase.


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Utakai was a party in which all participants recited them. Utakai derived from Shikai, Kanshi party and was held in occasion people gathered like seasonal party for the New Year, some celebrations for a newborn baby, a birthday, or a newly built house. Utaawase was a contest in two teams. Themes were determined and a chosen poet from each team wrote a waka for a given theme; the judge gave points to the winning team. The team which received the largest sum was the winner; the first recorded Utaawase was held in around At first, Utaawase was playful and mere entertainment, but as the poetic tradition deepened and grew, it turned into a serious aesthetic contest, with more formality.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. Vani Prakashan. Indian Narratology. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Dictionary Of Indology.

Sanskrit Manuscripts : Kuśopadeśanītisāra

Pustak Mahal. Subhasita, Gnomic and Didactic Literature. Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: sasay to zorgot, Volume 5. Sahitya Akademi.


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  • Ingalls, Sr. Hinduism topics. Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda. Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka. Ayurveda Dhanurveda Natya Shastra Sthapatyaveda. Category Portal. Categories : Sanskrit literature Sanskrit poetry Indian poetry. Hidden categories: Articles containing Sanskrit-language text. Related Images. YouTube Videos. The surviving work is dated to roughly BCE, based on older oral tradition.


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